Vocal Genres in Italy at the Turn of the 16th-17th Centuries: The Birth of the Monodic Style

Ildikó Heltai-Duffek



This essay examines vocal genres at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, such as the villanella, aria, motet, madrigal and opera. The changing features of the genres, which include the monodic style and the recitative are at the centre of these changes. The features of the late Renaissance, for example, notation ornaments, and the Early Baroque period are beginning to be formed in those changes. By demonstrating these changes, the essay offers audiences and performers an opportunity to know and understand better the vocal music of this time and to perform it authenticly.

Keywords: monody, madrigal, motet, ornaments, Italy

Various Tonal Systems and Phenomena in the 19th and 20th Century

Zsolt Horváth



This study – without claiming completeness – takes into account systems and phenomena in which the organising of pitches is different from that of functional tonality. A central topic is how the principle of symmetry prevails, along with possible interpretations of the notion of tonality. The starting point of the most important manifestations of symmetry is the equal division of the octave, from which the issues of the distance scales are inseparable. The study presents the interactions of diatonic scale and pitch-organization based on the principles of symmetry, which casts a new light on the phenomenon of polytonality. The study relies on important research published abroad during the last few decades – mainly in relation to Stravinsky’s music – but which may be lesser known in Hungary.

Keywords: “ungar” scale, symmetry, polytonality

The Notation of Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century Choral Music

Ágnes Török



The Avant garde schools required a notation style different from the traditional one both in instrumental and vocal music. This study points to the historical background of contemporary notation and the interdependence of the graphic representation of sound and notation. The illustrations are primarily selected from Hungarian choir literature authentic elements used for modes of expression.

Keywords: choir music, contemporary notation, graphic elements, accidentality

The Social Dimensions of Listening to Music

Judit Váradi



Cultural heritage is a socially created and interpreted narrative, which becomes interpretable through cultural transfer (Sagrillo, 2018). The role of culturally creative communities in shaping and maintaining cultural constructs has always been decisive. Lasting values are determined by cultural choice. Through crossing cultural and historical boundaries, music a deeply coded discourse establishes communication at all times. The experience and emotional effects produced by music are based on previous experiences, emotional reactions, and memories. The art of listening to music has always been governed by the social norms and etiquette of the period, which also dictate the nature and quality of reception. The history of listening to music has, however, enjoyed little academic attention. Since it is an unobservable and amorphous phenomenon, it was defined as a natural receptive process for a long time. Only in recent decades has the question come into focus as various disciplines have explored short-term and long-term transformative processes to reveal the effect of social, political, and economic characteristics of several eras.

Keywords: listening to music, musical experience, receiving competence, concert

Historical Overview of the Teaching of Music Theory as Part of the School Curriculum in Hungary

Márta S. Szabó



The primary sources for an historical overview of secondary-level musical education in Hungary are publications on school histories and yearbooks and the work of outstanding teachers. An overview of theoretical subjects is made far more difficult, however, by the fact that both the name and content of these subjects has undergone considerable change over time. It was only in the mid-20th century that secondary-level musical education separated from the far wider range of age groups that had characterized earlier musical education (zenede in Hungarian) that lasted for 10-11 years. Those music schools that offered it –had existed since the second half of the 19th century. This paper is part of a more comprehensive methodological work designed to bring to light the historical teaching of music theory in Hungarian musical training with regard to its roots, curricula, handbooks and teaching practices up to the mid-20th century, when the system of secondary schools specializing in musical education was established.

Keywords: history of music teaching, professional musical training, teaching music theory

The Role of Orff Approach to Music Education

Tamás Szalai



The German-born music educator and composer, Carl Orff began to develop his own music education system in the 1920s and 1930s. This paper gives a concise review of the Orff concept from historical, educational theoretical, and methodological aspects based on available literature. Topics include the Orff instrumentation as the defining methodological element of the Orff concept, the internationalization of the Orff concept in America, as well as the training of current Orff educators.

Keywords: Orff Schulwerk, music education, alternative music pedagogy

The Complexity of the Teaching Profession in Music Education

Tímea Szűcs



The complexity of the teaching profession can be seen in the relationship between various people as they work together with students, colleagues, management and office staff. In addition, the different personalities and attitudes of the children fundamentally determine the structure and effectiveness of lessons as well as applied pedagogical methods. The complexity can also be approached through the diversity of teaching activities. Besides lessons and administration, the duties of the teacher include organizing various school and city events, competitions, programs, trips and camps. The music teacher’s individual lessons involve yet another type of interaction between teacher and student, and this special situation adds complexity to a teaching career. This essay explores the specific situations and challenges that characterize a music teacher's career.

Keywords: teaching, complexity, pedagogical methods, music education, primary schools of arts

Renewable Early Music

Csaba Zoltán Nagy



In the past few decades there have been major changes to historically informed performance practice. Early music departments have appeared in conservatories worldwide, where one can study early music on period instruments according to extant performance sources. Despite historically informed performance practice being well-known and well-acknowledged, no course has been offered thus far by Hungarian conservatories, resulting in the phenomena of young professionals with bachelor and/or master degrees but with only scarce awareness of this practice. This essay provides readers with the basic notions of early music performance, emphasizing the particular mentality shaping its theoretical foundation.

Keywords: early music, historical performance, early music department

Performance and Transcription of Baroque Solo Pieces for Bassoon

Mihály Duffek, Jr.



This essay examines the sources of the autographs and copies of the two selected cycles, on the basis of which I made a bassoon transcription of J. S. Bach’s Cello Suites and G. Ph. Telemann’s Fantasies for Solo Flute. Using the special literature on the subject of the Baroque style of playing in general, the articulation, ornamentation, dynamics and tempi of the two cycles were determined, along with the role and playing possibilities of the period bassoon. Aspects of the transcription include: a brief description of the habitual Baroque transcription and its tradition; presentation and evaluation of other bassoon transcriptions of the selected pieces; consideration of the author’s detailed aspects in the transcription in terms of articulation, ornamentation, dynamics, tempos, and breathing. Also discussed are the purpose of the completed transcription, its role in education, and its place in the bassoon repertoire as well.

Keywords: bassoon, solo bassoon, baroque, transcription, Bach, Telemann

Introduction to Keyboard Music Practice in the Early Music Era: Principles and their Practical Implementation

Hedvig Jakab



This study focuses on the rich production from the late Renaissance to the Baroque period of early music for keyboard. During the performance of these works, because of the less than reliable sources, a number of problems arise, such as manuscript distribution, and the initial teething problems of printing. Sheet music and its interpretation add another trap for present-day performers for without knowledge of the interpretation practice of that era (articulation, phrasing, agogic accentuation, ornamentation, fingering, pedalling) coupled with inadequate tools an incorrect style presentation is born. This study provides specific musical examples for the practical implementation of these principles.

Keywords: early music, fingering, pedalling, articulation, ornamentation

Encountering Parallels: A Functional Overview of Piano History

Mihály Duffek



The study describes the three-hundred years’ long development of the piano from the unusual point of view of the parallels between the piano itself and the performing arts, piano pedagogy and scores editing. Each of these components has its own power to induce changes and influence development, which also gives rise to the possibility of individual development in the examined period. The topic becomes complicated, when we begin to take into account the effects of these elements. We can see a complete system, where the parallels really do meet, and finally produce a high level of the art of piano music in Europe.

Keywords: piano, edition of scores, piano pedagogy, piano art


Historical Aspects of Rhythm Notation and Rhythm Sequences

István Szabó



For percussionists, rhythm notation represents more than a mere temporal sequence of music; it also assists in the selection and execution of appropriate technique. This musical execution often depends on the percussion instrument, although it is safe to argue that the movement sequence when played on an instrument is independent of its size and proportions. Starting from the first beats, it is as crucial to learn and master movement routines as it is to understand and feel the time between notes, since these together enable one to play a rhythm notation precisely and internalise the correct motor processes. Applying the adequate movement sequences consciously during the learning process can result in substantial ability to exercise self-control, which can also be utilised during practice. In the past centuries, the style of percussionists’ performance transformed substantially due to the evolution of instruments and mallets, as well as performers’ efforts to achieve faster tempos. In this study, a brief overview on the history of percussion instruments is followed by a presentation of the technical evolution and milestones of how snare drums and other drums are played. When practicing percussion instruments, we must bear in mind the vast contribution of percussionists from bygone centuries, who laid the foundations of modern-day techniques either in wars or for the entertainment of others’.

Keywords: tabor, snare drum, traditional grip, rudimental

Analysis of Hungarian Classical GuitarMethods: The Complexity of Content

Zoltán Óváry



Nowadays teaching materials, pieces of music and methods of teaching guitar are widely available, yet experience has shown that most Hungarian teachers still use only national learning content. Their choosing from the slowly but gradually broading materials depends on their professional experience or previous studies. This study examines the most widely known multi-volume guitar teaching materials from an objective point of view. This analysis classifies musical pieces on the basis of their content. The purpose is not to pass judgment but rather to help in assessing the materials through a comprehensive methodological system.

Keywords: Classical guitar, music material analysis, Szendrey-Karper, Nagy-Mosóczi, Sándor Suba

Methodology of Teaching the Doublebass

Kálmán Kapusi



This study offers assistance to those who are going to teach or already do teach how to play the doublebass. It provides a summary from how to positione the instrument, through the most important musical terminology and all the technical difficulties thought to be obligatory for doublebass players. The first part of the study focuses on the main types of personalities of both teachers and sudents describing the major possibilities of harmonizing co-working and how to motivate and handle different characters. The second part describes the most frequent technical problems, for example  instrument and bow positioning, practice routine and the preservation of the player’s working ability.

Keywords: doublebass, methodology, pedagogy

Similarities and Differences between Classical and Jazz Saxophone Playing

Levente Puskás



The saxophone is one of the most popular, almost ubiquitous instruments of our time. It is unimaginable that the saxophone would not appear in an orchestra or band in jazz, popular music, dance music, pop music, or even folk music. It is not widely known, however, that the story and history of the saxophone dates as far back as around 170(!) years ago. In 2014 the 200th birthday of Adolphe Sax the inventor, after whom the instrument got its name, was celebrated. Sax was the first saxophone instructor at the Conservatoire de Paris. For most of the 19th century, mostly Classical and Romantic pieces were usually played by the saxophone, as the genre of jazz came into existence only around the 1910s-1920s. At that point classical and jazz (popular) saxophone music separated. Differences between the two styles can still be observed in both musical approach and technique. This study presents the similarities and differences between these two highly distinct approaches.

Keywords: saxophone, Adolphe Sax, classical music, jazz

There Is No Such Thing as Sound Production or Sound = Release:
The Importance of Natural Movement and Its Teaching in Violin Playing

Tamás Ittzés



This study details an approach which, in a certain respect, simplifies violin playing and teaching in the extreme. Creating a sound is based on a very simple rule: the sound = release. Release is preceded by tension, which is released with the sounding of the note. This is true on every level, in every direction. This general rule (or view) helps to make violin playing, the sounds created relaxed, natural and beautiful. The study shows step by step, how the necessary active tension comes into being and then how it is released, how and in what forms performers can use gravity. The main elements of this process are the posture of the body and the instrument, the movements of the arms and the joints (shoulder/armpit/upper arm. elbow/lower arm, wrist/back of the hand/palm and fingers) in their natural direction, the positions of the left hand, touch and vibrato, the relationship of the bow to the string, the use of bowing positions and right bow division, and strokes. Without the appropriate teaching of these no mechanism can be established and because of these deficiencies many a talent has been lost unable to even approach their own boundaries and unable to ever become a professional player.

Keywords: sound production, release, natural mechanism, freedom, gravitation, violin

Configuration of Natural and Harmonious Movement Mechanisms in Instrumental Play:
The Importance of Movement Development, the Choices in Deepening Motor Skills

Zsolt Romos



This study examines ways to redefine movement mechanisms in musical instruments and to develop skills in a more complex way in addition to developing correct movements, while also taking into account individual characteristics in everyday practice, especially for the flute. The study summarizes information about the anatomical and physiological background of motion development for music teachers. It also introduces expanded flute technique with exercises to improve student movement coordination. Such techniques can also assist teachers in recognizing and applying the phases of motion learning.

Keywords: dimension of movement mechanisms, movement development, flute technique

Frissítés dátuma: 2020.06.20.

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